A theme that appears over and over in discussions about technology is whether or not technology is the cause of major social, cultural, political, and economic changes in modern society. Of course, we can find many, many examples of technologies associated with enormous social changes. The automobile, for example, is often spoke of as "causing" a whole array of social changes, from the creation of suburbia, to the development of the fast food industry, to the paving of farm land, to the imported oil vulnerabilities of the 1970s. The popular media is filled with similar examples of new technologies that are going to change everything, from computers to nanotechnologies to new medical devices. And we are often told that we must find ways to accommodate ourselves to these new devices and to the changes they will cause, that we must strive to ride the wave of social flux produced by emerging technologies, or face the dire prospect of being "left behind."
This language and these arguments, whether in the general media or in scholarly analyses, are examples of various kinds of technological determinism, the notion that technology is the most powerful force behind the modern world, that technology "drives" history (Smith, Marx, 1994). Those who support this idea often claim more: technology may well be pushing us in directions we do not want to go, that technology has somehow gotten "out of control."
Technological determinism comes in different forms. For some, such as the late French scholar Jacques Ellul (1965, 1980, 1990), technology is the most powerful force in modern life, moving according to its own logic, and well beyond the control of humans. Others, such as political theorist Langdon Winner (1977, 1986), assert that tech...
...equired to maintain and operate technological systems, such as electrical power grids, nationwide telephone systems, television networks, etc. While the people involved in technological systems do have the power to make choices -- as the anti-determinists claim -- they must make those choices in settings that can impose significant limits on the range of choices available, as the determinists claim. In other words, the control of technology becomes more difficult, and maybe ultimately impossible, as we move from smaller and simpler structures and artifacts toward much larger, complex, and interdependent systems. It is much more difficult to change our minds about technologies after they have developed such organizational shells as multinational corporations or public utilities, and after so much investment has occurred (Collingridge, 1980, Morone, Woodhouse, 1986).
Level of Stress among Call Centre Employees Submission date: 8th January, 2008 Submitted By: Ayesha Khalid Ayesha Sarfaraz Nazool-e-Tabassum Saira Khan Mussaffa Butt Submitted to Dr. Farah Malik Associate Professor Department of Psychology Government College University Lahore Introduction Stress is used as a general label for a vast complex, interdisciplinary area of interest and study, much of which is health related.
Most often stress is related to personal discomfort associated with an over demanding or distressinglifestyle situation (Adams & Bromley, 1998) stress is a part of everyday life, we experience stress each day, although it is acknowledged that the degree of stress varies considerably depending on the complexity of the situation and availability of support. For some, the stress is manageable and work or home life is not affected. For others, however, the stress reaches a critical point where there may be a need for medical or psychiatric assistance (Weiten, 2001).
The causes of stress can include any event or occurrence that a person considers a threat to his or her coping strategies or resources. Researchers generally agree that a certain degree of stress is a normal part of a living organismâ€™s response to the inevitable changes in its physical or social environment, and that positive, as well as negative, events can generate stress as well as negative occurrences (Frey, 2002). There can be innumerable stress factors since different individuals react differently to the samestress conditions.
Extreme stress situations for an individual may prove to be mild for another,for yet another person the situations might not qualify as stressing at all. (http://www. lifepositive. com/stress. html). The fact that women report and exhibit higher level of psychological distress than men has been explained in three major ways. The methodological artifact explanation suggests that women are socialized to be more expressive and therefore will admit more emotional symptoms than men in response to the standard psychological stress (Frey, 2002).
The stress exposure argument suggests that women face more stressor in general or more severe, persistent stressors than men. Whereas the vulnerability argument suggest that women lack coping resources such as high self esteem, a sense of mastery or appropriate coping strategies for handling the stressors to which they are exposed. Newman (1984 c. f. Eckenrode, 1991) suggested that women over report minor symptoms that inflate over all distress scores (Eller, 2000).
Stress in humans in general results from interactions between persons and their environment that are perceived as straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening their well-being. The element of perception indicates that human stress responses reflect differences in personality, as well as differences in physical strength or general health (Frey, 2002). Stress is often termed asa twentieth century syndrome, born out of manâ€™s race towards modern progress and its ensuingcomplexities.
For that matter, causes such as a simple flight delay to managing a teenage child athome can put you under stress. Listing the causes of stress is tricky yet replete with practical diversity (http://www. lifepositive. com/stress. html). General cause of stress include primarily, Threat; a perceived threat will lead a person to feel stressed. This can include physical threats, social threats, financial threat, and so on. Fear; Fear leads to imagined outcomes, which are the real source of stress.
Uncertainty; When people are not certain, they are unable to predict, and hence feel they are not in control, and hence may feel fear or feel threatened by that which is causing the uncertainty (http://www. workstress. net/causes. htm). Apart from certain general causes another reason is cognitive dissonance; it is when there is a gap between what people do and what they think, then the outcome experience is cognitive dissonance, which is felt as stress.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.